Buddhist Numbered Lists

Compiled and Edited by Greg Goode, Ph.D.

Greg is editor of the Nondualism and Western Philosophers page, author of Presence, and compiled and edited Nondualism, Yogas, and Personality Characteristics

In Buddhism, the creation of numbered lists such as The Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path have been time-honored ways of presenting information. During much of Buddhism's 2,500-year history, the teachings have been conveyed and recited orally. Numbered lists in the sutras and commentaries serve to make the teachings more easily remembered. Even in the modern world of print and electronic media, presenting the multi-faceted Buddhist teachings in list form makes them easier to remember and ponder. It also has the psychological advantage of making the teachings stand out against the background of non-numbered information.

The present list is a beginning compilation of Buddhist numbered lists on prominent subjects in Buddhist teaching. This compilation has been for my own study. In many texts I have often encountered the mention of a seemingly important numbered list (such as “The Five Corruptions” or “The Six Dusts”) with no explanation. There are over one hundred lists in the present compilation, culled from a wide variety of sutras, commentaries, treatises and reference books. Nevertheless, this is only a beginning and vastly incomplete effort. There has been no effort at providing alternative translations of the English coming from Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese, Japanese, or Tibetan sources (passion vs. desire, or corruptions vs. defilements, etc.) The lists are stronger in the areas of Mahayana, Pure Land, and Zen/Ch'an, and weaker in the areas of Theravada, Abhidharma (psychology and philosophy), Tantra and Dzogchen. Any assistance, additions or corrections are gratefully welcomed!

Buddhist Numbered Lists

Numbered Item


(01) One Vehicle Great Vehicle Dharma – Mahayana, vehicle of the Bodhisattva.
(02) Two Branches of Mahayana (1) Paramitayana, practice of the 6 paramitas or perfections, (2) Vajrayana/Mantrayana/Tantrayana, the way of the diamond, following the thread of knowledge. Involves mantra, symbolic, esoteric and magical practices.
(02) Two Good Things, Merit and Virtue From Pure Land Buddhism, and the Sutra Translation Committee and the Van Hien Study Group. The same action can lead to merits or virtues, according to the intention. The motive of mundane rewards leads to merits, and the motive of transcendence leads to virtues.

(1) Merits are the blessings (wealth, intelligence, etc.) of the human and celestial realms. They are temporary and subject to birth and death.

(2) Virtues transcend birth and death, and lead to Buddhahood. Pure Land Buddhism mentions four virtues: (i) eternity, (ii) happiness, (iii) True Self, (iv) Purity.

(02) Two Major Afflictions These have a greater and more causal effect than minor afflictions:
(1) Shamelessnes, (2) Impudence.
Back to index
(02) Two Truths Two kinds of truths, each has many instances. (1) Conventional truth of the mundane world, "manifests stillness but is always illuminating" (Hsu Heng Chi/P.H. Wei, quoted in Horizontal Escape) and is immanent in everything. (2) The Ultimate truth transcends dichotomies and is inexplicable. There is the conventional truth of the table (the conventional designation of the table) and the ultimate truth of the table (emptiness of the inherent existence of the table).
(02) Two Kinds of Patience From the Upasakashila Sutra, quoted in Hsing Yun's Being Good. (1) Patience of this world, includes the endurance of hunger, thirst, heat, cold, suffering, and joy. (2) Patience which transcends this world, which includes learning to be steady in belief, wisdom, generosity, compassion, and open-mindedness; learning to be steadfast in our loyalty to the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha; and learning to endure insults, beatings, taunting, evil plots against us, greed, anger, ignorance and all the other vile and humiliating things of this world. We learn to endure the unendurable and to accomplish the impossible." (pp. 91-92). Back to index
(02) Two Zen Qualities (1) Kyogai – (Visaya=world/place in Sanskrit) Unified mind/body/behavior, the opposite of dry intellectualization; it is the absence of self-reflectiveness, self-consciousness; it is totally poured into behavior. Like being "narikitta" or totally one with the thing. Can be learned. From G. Victor Sogen Hori, "Koan and Kensho in the Rinzai Zen Curriculum. (2) Majime – wisdom and courage to eliminate the distinctions between actions and thoughts. Both kyogai and majime can be learned, trained. They bespeak genuineness, authenticity. Back to index
(03) Three Baskets (tripitaka) (1) Regulations of the lives of monastics (Vinaya-pitaka), (2) discourses coming from the mouth of the Buddha or his immediate disciples and arranged into 5 collections (Digha-nikaya, Majjhima-nikaya, Samyutta-nikaya, Anguttara-nikaya, Khuddaka-nikaya), (3) Buddhist psychology and philosophy (Abhidharma-pitaka). Back to index
(03) Three Dharma Ages (1) Dharma Perfect Age, Buddha Shakyamuni's demise to 500 years, when enlightenment was often attained, (2) Dharma Semblance Age was the next 1,000 years, when enlightenment was seldom attained, (3) Dharma Ending Age, the next 10,000 years, when enlightenment will rarely be attained. Back to index
(03) Three Dharma Seals Three insights, often used as criteria to determine the genuine-ness of Buddhist teachings – (1) All composite things (samskaras) are impermanent, (2) All dharmas do not have an independent self, (3) Nirvana is perfect peace. Sometimes a fourth is used (4) emptiness. Can be used to determine whether a sutra is authentic, such as the Platform Sutra, about Hui Neng, not Buddha! If it conforms to the Dharma seals, then it's authentic. Back to index
(03) Three Insights Trividya (Sanskrit) (1) All phenomena are impermanent, (2) All phenomena are sorrowful, (3) All phenomena are devoid of essence. Back to index
(03) Three Jewels (triratna) Buddha, Dharma, Sangha. Back to index
(03) Three Ways Phenomena are Interdependent (1) Phenomena are dependent upon other phenomena (red/yellow/green or hot/cold), (2) Phenomena are dependent in part/whole relationships (the chariot and the parts of the chariot), (3) Phenomena are dependent upon a perceiving or cognizing consciousness. Back to index
(03) Three Liberations Also known as the Three gates of nirvana (vimoksha). Meditation that prepares the way for nirvana through the realization of emptiness (shunyata), formlessness (animitta), and passionlessness. The three liberations are (1) the recognition of ego and all dharmas as empty, (2) the recognition of all dharmas as formless and devoid of distinctions, (3) the recognition of existence as unworthy of desire. Back to index
(03) Three Poisons Fundamental evils in life which give rise to human suffering. (1) Greed, (2) Anger, (3) Delusion. In the Dhammapada Sutra it is taught that attachment is the root cause of suffering: "From craving [attachment] springs grief, from craving springs fear; For him who is wholly free from craving, there is no grief, much less fear." Back to index
(03) Three Root Precepts All Bodhisattva precepts or vows derive from these root precepts. (1) Do not do what is evil, (2) Do what is good, (3) Be of benefit to all sentient beings. Back to index
(03) Three Teachings Also known as the Three Learnings – (1) Morality, (2) Meditation, (3) Wisdom. Back to index
(03) Three truths (T'ien-t'ai school) (1) Dharmas possess no independent reality and thus are empty, (2) A dharma has the temporally limited apparent existence of phenomena and can be detected by the senses, (3) the "middle," suchness, the true state is not to be found anywhere other than in phenomena; phenomena and the absolute are one. This truth stands above the other two and includes them. Back to index
(03) Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma (1) Theravada, (2) Mahayana, (3) Vajrayana/Mantrayana/Tantrayana. Back to index
(03) Three Vehicles Middle level, "Sravaka Vehicle" or "Theravada" – Sravaka, Pratyekabuddha, and Bodhisattva (Sravakas follow Theravada and eventually become arhats as a result of listening to the Buddhas and following their teachings. Pratyekabuddhas become fully enlightened by meditating on the principle of causality). Back to index
(03) Three woeful paths (apaya) Hell beings, hungry ghosts, animals Back to index
(03) Three worlds (triloka) (1) Kamaloka, desire world, includes humans, hell beings, animals, asuras, and the six classes of gods (2) Rupaloka, desireless corporality or form, includes gods in the dhyana heaven. Rebirth here possible through the four absorptions (3) Arupaloka, formlessness, surely spiritual continuum, consists of the four heavens in which one is born via the practice of the four stages of formlessness. Back to index
(03) Threefold refuge (trisharana) Taking refuge in (1) the Buddha, (2) the Dharma, and (3) the Sangha. Back to index
(03) Triple Realm Also Three Realms, Three Worlds. (1) Realm of Desire (our world), (2) Realm of form (for lesser deities), (3) Realm of formlessness (for higher deities). The Western Pure Land is outside the Triple Realm, beyond retrogression and samsara. Back to index
(04) Four Bases of Spiritual Power From the Anapanasati Sutra
(1) Joy, from composure of mind and determined striving. (2) Energy, the energy that it takes to recognize that the mind is tense. Comes from concentration and determined striving. (3) Purity of mind from concentration/tranquillity and determined striving. (4) The ability to investigate, from concentration/composure and determined striving.
Back to index
(04) Four Benefits of Patience From Master Hsing-Yun's Being Good – (1) Patience dissipates the anger of the one practicing patience, and others as well, (2) Patience is a reliable refuge, (3) Patience is the source of great goodness and is a hidden virtue, (4) Patience is the source or cause of bodhi wisdom. Back to index
(04) Four Bodies (kayas) (1) Dharmakaya, dharma body – the space from which everything arises. Also, the Buddha's true nature, and his unity with everything else. Originally the teaching expounded by the historical Buddha. Also called dharmadhatu. Realized through prajna. Vairochana Buddha (transcendental Buddha) is a symbol.

(2) Sambhogakaya, enjoyment body – points to the experience that there's energy and color and movement. Sound is often a symbol of Sambhogakaya. Also, the result of previous good actions, as the body for a bodhisattva. It exhibits the 32 major marks and the eighty minor marks of a buddha and can be perceived only by a bodhisattva in its last stage of development. Also the ecstasy of enlightenment, the means to convey the experience of emptiness. Amitabha Buddha is a symbol.

(3) Nirmanakaya, body of transformation – the experience that emptiness manifests in form and that form is emptiness, yet we solidify it. Embodied in earthly buddhas and bodhisattvas projected into the world through the meditation of the Sambhogakaya buddhas as a result of their compassion. Nirmanakaya manifestations are to expound the teaching, and are guides on the way to liberation but have no causal force. They are human beings subject to the misery of illness, old age and death, but have the divine eye and divine hearing. Individuality dissolves after death. Shakyamuni Buddha an example.

(4) Svabhavikakaya, "self-nature" body – the fact that the three bodies arise at once. It is the essenceless, emptiness, called svabhaha-shunyata, and related to Madhyamika's teachings on emptiness. Dharmakaya, Sambhogakaya and Nirmanakaya are the three bodies possessed by a Buddha in Mahayana. In Tibetan Buddhism and vajrayana, the body, speech and mind of the master are equated with the three bodies.
Back to index
(04) Four Constituents (1) Earth, (2) Water, (3) Wind, (4) Fire. Back to index
(04) Four Elements (1) the firm, (2) fluid, (3) heating (4), and moving. Back to index
(04) Four Evils (sometimes called "Four Devils") (1) The evil from the five aggregates of form, feeling, perception, tendencies, and consciousness, (2) The evil of death, (3) the evil of suffering. (4), the evil of the Samsaric world. Back to index
(04) Four Great Bodhisattva Virtues (1) Giving, (2) Amiable speech, (3) Conduct beneficial to others, (4) Cooperation. Back to index
(04) Four Foundations (awakenings) of mindfulness (Satipatthana, Hinayana) (1) Mindfulness of body, including breath, bodily elements, and charnel ground contemplation, (2) Mindfulness of feeling, including pleasant/unpleasant, worldly/supramundane and transitory, (3) Mindfulness of mind, incl. Every state of consciousness, (4) Mindfulness of mental objects, including the conditioned-ness and inessentiality of things, presence/absence of the five hindrances, and the fact that all is the five skandas. Back to index
(04) Four Fruits Four stages of spiritual attainment in the Theravadin tradition:
  1. Stream-Winner (shrotapanna, liberation within 7 lifetimes: elimination of (i) the fetter of the belief in the independent existence of the person or taking the aggregates to be the self; overcoming this makes one a noble person, (ii) the fetter of doubt about the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha, and about the rules of discipline and interdependent origination, (iii) the fetter of belief in the power of rules and rituals to lead one to liberation (reference to Brahminism)
  2. Once-Returner (sakadagami, liberation in the next lifetime: weakens so as to be un-recognizable to other people but doesn't remove the fetters of (i) sensual desire and (ii) ill will),
  3. Never-Returner (anagami, never reborn in the cycle of birth-and-death, but only in the abodes of the non-returners: has eliminated the fetters of sensual desire and ill will)
  4. Foe-Destroyer (arhat, the stage of the one "no longer in training": the following 5 fetters eliminated, (i) attachment to the sphere of form, (ii) attachment to the formless sphere, (iii) conceit, (iv) agitation, (v) ignorance). Back to index
(04) Four Great Debts Debts to (1) One's parents, (2) the Three Treasures, (3) The founders of the nation and enlightened temporal leaders, (4) All sentient beings, as having been one's parents in past lives. Back to index
(04) Four Aspects of Friendship From the Dirgha Agama – (1) Stop bad behavior, (2) Be kind, (3) Help each other, (4) Share the same lot. Back to index
(04) Four Kinds of Right Striving From the Anapanasati Sutra

(1)   Cultivate zeal for the non-arising of non-arisen unwholesome states of mind. That is, cultivate a mind that has joyful interest and enthusiasm so that is free of unwholesome states. The result is joy and upliftment.

(2)   Cultivate zeal for the abandonment of arisen unwholesome states of mind. That is, turn away from burdensome emotional states such as anger, sadness, jealousy, anxiety, stress, depression, fear, etc., and replace them with a mind of joyful interest and enthusiasm.

(3)   Cultivate zeal for the arising of non-arisen wholesome states of mind. That is, strive to make effort, arouse energy, exert the mind, and strive.

(4)   Cultivate zeal for the continuation and non-disappearance of already-arisen wholesome states of mind. Strive for the continuation, the increase and fulfillment of these states of mind, making effort, exerting the mind and striving. In this way, many of [the Buddha's] students have reached the consummation of perfection of direct knowledge.

Back to index

(04) Four Immeasurables (Brahma-vihara, a meditation where the practitioner arouses these four positive states of mind and radiates them outwards in all directions) – (1) limitless kindness (maitri) towards all beings, (2) limitless compassion (karuna) towards those who are suffering, (3) limitless joy (mudita) over the salvation of others from suffering, (4) limitless equanimity (upeksha) towards friend and foe. Back to index
(04) Four Levels of Teachings From Gyel-tsap's Illumination of the Essential Meanings of (Nagarjuna's) "Precious Garland of Madhyamika," quoted in Jeffrey Hopkins' Precious Garland, pp. 90-91. "[Buddhas] teach the doctrines that they (the students) can bear as objects of their minds. The stages are as follows:

(1)   To some they teach doctrines to turn them away from ill-deeds such as killing; this is so that these trainees who have the thought-patterns of beings of small capacity may achieve the ranks of gods or humans as fruits of their merit.

(2)   To some trainees who have the thought-patterns of beings of middle capacity they teach doctrines based on the duality of apprehended object and apprehending subject and that cyclic existence one-pointedly is to be abandoned and nirvana is one-pointedly to be adopted.

(3)   To some trainees they teach ultimately established consciousness empty of a difference in substantial entity between apprehended object and apprehending subject, thereby teaching to them [doctrine that is] not based on duality.

(4)   To some trainees of highest faculties, who will achieve unsurpassed enlightenment, they teach [doctrine] that has an essence of emptiness – the profound mode of subsistence [of phenomena] frightening to the fearful who adhere to the true existence of things – and compassion." Back to index

(04) Four Noble Truths (1) The Truth of Suffering, (2) The Truth of the origin of suffering through desire, (3) The Truth of the cessation of suffering through the elimination of desire, (4) The Truth of the means of the ending of suffering through the eightfold path. Back to index
(04) Four Perfect Exertions (Samyak-prahanani) The Buddha recommended these to avoid unwholesome factors in the future and eliminate the present ones: (1) the exertion of restraint (avoiding unwholesome factors), (2) the exertion of overcoming (unwholesome factors), (3) the exertion of developing wholesome factors, esp. enlightenment, (4) the exertion of maintaining wholesome factors. These are identical with the sixth of the eight-fold path, Right Effort/exertion. Back to index
(04) Four Propositions (1) Existence, (2) Non-existence, (3) Both, (4) Neither. The 100 errors are derived from these propositions. Back to index
(04) Four Basic Qualities of Nirvana From Master Hsing-Yun's Being Good – (1) Nothing arises in nirvana, (2) Nothing abides in Nirvana, (3) Nirvana is selfless, (4) Nirvana lacks nothing. Back to index
(04) Four Rules to Observe (1) Follow the Dharma, not the teacher, (2) Follow the meaning, not the words, (3) Follow wisdom, not knowledge, (4) Follow the ultimate truth, not apparent truths. Back to index
(04) Four Stages of Absorption (Dhyana, Ch'an, Zen) (1) Relinquishing of desires and unwholesome factors, reached by conceptualization and discursive thought; there is joyful interest and well-being, (2) Coming to rest of conceptualization and discursive thought, attainment of inner calm, one-pointedness of mind; joyful interest and well-being continue, (3) Joy disappears, replaced by equanimity (upeksha); one is alert, aware, feels well-being, (4) Only equanimity and wakefulness are present. Back to index
(04) Four Stages of Cultivation From the Flower Adornment Sutra. (1) Belief, (2) Understanding, (3) Practice, (4) Attainment. Back to index
(04) Four Stages of Formlessness (Arupasamadhi, Early Buddhism) Meditation to raise on to increasingly higher stages of incorporeality. (1) Stage of the limitlessness of space, (2) Stage of the limitlessness of consciousness, (3) Stage of nothing whatever, (4) State beyond awareness/nonawareness. Back to index
(04) Four Universal Bodhisattva Vows (1) Sentient beings are numberless, I vow to save them all, (2) Afflictions are inexhaustible, I vow to end them all, (3) Ways to practice are boundless, I vow to master them all, (4) Enlightenment is unsurpassable, I vow to attain it. Back to index
(04) Four-fold Assembly The assembly of (1) Monks, (2) Nuns, (3) Laymen, and (4) Laywomen. Back to index
(04) Four-fold Negation Also called the negative tetralemma, and is applied to binary relations such as causation, motion, identity, etc. that are said to hold between phenomena. Example used here is identity (1) X is not identical to Y, (2) X is not different from Y, (3), X is not both identical to and different from Y, (4) X is neither identical to nor different from Y. Back to index
(04) Fourfold Mindfulness (1) The body is impure, (2) Sensations will always result in suffering, (3) The mind is impermanent, (4) All dharmas are without a nature of their own. Back to index
(04) Four True Realizations of Pure Land Teachings From the Pure Land treatise, Horizontal Escape, by Thich Thien Tam, pp. 111-112.

(1) Birth in the Pure Land is definitely birth; however return to the Pure Land is, in truth, no return. This is True Realization of realms, not of beings.

(2) Return is definitely return; however, birth is, in truth, No-Birth. This is True Realization of beings, not of realms.

(3) Return is, in reality, no return; birth is also, in reality, no birth. This is True Realization of both realms and beings.

(4) Return is definitely return; birth is definitely birth. This is not True Realization of realms and beings. Back to index

(05) Five Afflicted Views From the Ge-luk-ba order of Tibetan Buddhism. From Jeffrey Hopkins' Meditation on Emptiness.

(1) View of the transitory collection as a real I and mine.

(2) View holding to an extreme

(3) Conception of a bad view as supreme.

(4) Conception of bad ethics and modes of conduct as supreme.

(5) Perverse views (i) denial of cause and effect or denial of good and bad behavior, (ii)denial of functionality, such as denial that former and future lives exist, (iii) denial of existent phenomena, such as denial of sages or foe-destroyers. Back to index

(05) Five Conditions for Karma to Occur (1) The object of the action or thought, (2) Consciousness of the existence of the object, (3) Intention to commit the action which affects the object, (4) Effort to commit the action, (5) Consequence or effect on the object of the action. Back to index
(05) Five Conditions which Modify the Weight of Karma (1) Persistence or repetition, (2) Willful intention, (3) Absence of regret, (4) Quality, (5) Indebtedness. Back to index
(05) Five Confucian Virtues (1) Gentility, (2) Kindness, (3) Respectfulness, (4) Thriftiness, (5) Humility. Back to index
(05) Five Corruptions Also known as the Five Turbidities, Defilements, Depravities, Filths, Impurities. (1) Defilement of views, when perverse thoughts are predominant; (2) Defilement of passions, when all kinds of transgressions are exalted; (3) Defilement of the human condition, when people are usually dissatisfied and unhappy; (4) Defilement of the lifespan, when the human life-span as a whole decreases; (5) Defilement of the world-age, when war and natural disasters are rife. They can be spurs to more earnest cultivation. Back to index
(05) Five Degrees of Enlightenment (From Zen master Tozan Ryokai/Tung-shan Liang-chieh) Combinations of Sho and Hen:

Sho: Absolute, fundamental, emptiness, sameness, one, true nature

Hen: Relative, phenomenal, form/color, difference, many, attributes

(1) Hen in the midst of Sho – phenomena dominate, but experienced as a manifestation of our true nature.

(2) Sho in the midst of Hen – the quality of nondistinction comes to the fore and the quality of manifoldness fades into the background.

(3) The One coming out of the midst of Sho, and Hen polarly related to it – no longer any awareness of body or mind, both drop away, experience of emptiness.

(4) Entering between the two polar aspects – each thing is accorded its special uniqueness to the greatest degree; emptiness has vanished into phenomena.

(5) Having already arrived in the middle of both – form and emptiness fully interpenetrate one another; from this state of mind issues intentionless action that instantly suits whatever circumstances arise. Back to index

(05) Five Desires Also known as the Five Passions:
(1) Wealth, (2) Beauty, (3) Fame, (4) Food, (5) Sleep.
Back to index
(05) Five Factors of Meditative Absorption The five factors are also called Jhananga (Sanskrit) – (1) initial application (vitakka), (2) sustained application (vichara), (3) interest, enthusiasm or rapture (piti), (4) happiness or bliss (sukha), and (5) one-pointedness (ekaggata). Back to index
(05) Five Factors Making Up the Personality (1) ignorance, (2) craving, (3) clinging, (4) karma, (5) the material sustenance of life (nourishment)Back to index
(05) Five Guidelines of Practice From the teachings of Master Chin Kung, Amitabha Society, extracted from the Pure Land Sutras.

[ I.] THE THREE CONDITIONS These are the foundations of cultivation in Buddhism, for complete wisdom, fortune and virtue. From the Visualization Sutra.

(1) Four practices based on the fundamental morals of humankind (11 practices in all):

1) Being filial to our parents

2) Respecting teachers and elders

3) Being compassionate and not killing any living being

4) Following the Ten Good Conducts

(2) Three practices based on cultivating the self:

1) Taking refuge in the Triple Jewels

2) Abiding by precepts, rules and customs

3) Conducting ourselves in a proper and dignified manner

(3) Four practices which follow the practices of the Bodhisattvas:

1) Generating the Bodhi mind

2) Deeply believing in the Law of Cause and Effect

3) Reciting and upholding the Mahayana sutras

4) Encouraging others on the path to Enlightenment


1) Share the same viewpoints and goals, establish a common consensus

2) Observe the same rules and precepts, even social laws and mores

3) Live and practice together harmoniously

4) Do not quarrel

5) Experience the inner peace and happiness from practicing together harmoniously, savor the Dharma joy

6) Share benefits harmoniously


1) Self discipline (cures the body)

2) Deep concentration (cures the mind)

3) Wisdom (cures behavior)


1) Charity or giving (dana; three kinds, (i) Giving of wealth which results in obtaining wealth, (ii) Giving of teaching which results in obtaining wisdom intelligence and skill, and (iii) Giving of fearlessness which results in health and long life)

2) Discipline or upholding precepts (sila, see the Five or Ten precepts)

3) Patience (kshanti, three categories, (i) tolerance of physical and verbal abuse, (ii) patience with the variations in the natural elements, (iii) patience with the arduous course of our practice)

4) Exertion or zeal (virya, staying focused on one method)

5) Meditation or contemplation (dhyana, includes the heavenly realms and beyond, includes Namo Amituofo chanting, keeps us away from the dreamlike unattainable phenomena)

6) Wisdom (prajna)


1) To pay respect to all Buddhas. Treat all people, matters and objects with respect, but do not necessarily praise them.

2) To praise the "Thus Come One" Praise the Tathagata, and other virtuous people, matters and objects.

3) To make offerings extensively. To all beings in the universe. This distinguishes the universal worthy bodhisattva from other bodhisattvas who practice only the six paramitas. It also includes offerings of teaching, especially the Infinite Life Sutra.

4) To regret karmic obstacles. We need to feel remorse, so that we can change behavior and get past these obstacles. There are two types of karmic obstacles, (i) those caused by afflictions, and (ii) those caused by knowledge attachment.

5) To be joyful over others' meritorious deeds. This overcomes jealousy and envy. Be as glad for others' meritorious deeds as for our own, and assist others in their endeavors.

6) To appeal to the Buddha to turn the Dharma Wheel. Invite knowledgeable masters to teach us about the dharma. Attend any useful dharma lecture, but praise only the worthy lecturers, and only if it will not harm them.

7) To request that the Buddha reside in this world. In addition to turning the dharma wheel, this vow will help spread Buddhism. This vow is interpreted to mean constant contact with the teaching/teacher.

8) To constantly be a diligent follower of the Buddha's teachings.

9) To accord with all sentient beings. Start with filial piety. Also, try to encourage beings to stop wrongdoings. Doing this effectively requires wisdom, expediency and flexibility.

10) To dedicate all merits. Dedicate them to all sentient beings. Back to index

(05) Five Hellish Deeds (Five Sins, will plunge their doers into the depths of hell) (1) Patricide, (2) matricide, (3) murder of an arhat, (4) injury of a buddha, (5) the attempt to create a schism in the Sangha. Back to index
(05) Five Hindrances Five qualities that hinder the mind from concentration, meditation, and knowing the truth. These are required to attain the five stages of absorption – (1) desire, (2) ill will, (3) sloth and torpor, (4) restlessness and compunction, (5) doubt. Back to index
(05) Five Kinds of Inhumanity From the Ekottarika Sutra – (1) When he ought to smile, he does not smile, (When he ought to feel joy, he feels none, (3) When he ought to be compassionate, he is not, (4) When he discovers his own mistakes, he does not correct them, and (5) When he hears of good things, he does not feel glad. Back to index
(05) Five Major Precepts (1) No killing, (2) No stealing, (3) No sexual misconduct, (4) No lying, (5) No intoxicating substances. Back to index
(05) Five Meanings of Nirvana These are the five possible meanings of the Pali word Nibbana:
  1. Extinction of the fires of greed, hatred, illusion and other elements of depravity and afflictions.
  2. Extinction of rebirth and end of suffering.
  3. Attainment of absolute permanence, easiness, attainment of Self and purity.
  4. No more fuelling the fires of desire with additional fuel, thereby letting it burn out by itself.
  5. State of supreme Bliss of Enlightenment, beyond the conception of the intellect.
    Back to index

(05) Five Pure Land Sutras and One Sastra (1) The Buddha Speaks of the Infinite Life Sutra of Adornment, Purity, Equality and Enlightenment of the Mahayana School, (2) The Amitabha Sutra, (3) The Visualization Sutra, (4) The "Chapter of Universal Worthy Bodhisattva's Conduct and Vows," from the Flower Adornment Sutra, (5) The "Chapter on the Perfect Complete Realization of the Great Strength Bodhisattva through Buddha Name Recitation" from the Surangama Sutra and (6) Vasubandhu Bodhisattva's Report on the Way to Reaching the Pure Land. Back to index
(05) Five Skandhas (1) Form, corporeality (rupa), composed of the four elements (the firm, fluid, heating and moving), of the sense organs and their objects, (2) sensation (vedana), composed of all sensations, pleasant, unpleasant and neutral, (3) perception (samjna), includes perceptions of form, sound, smell, taste, bodily impressions, and mental objects, (4) mental formations (samskaras), which include mental impulses such as volition, attention, discrimination, joy, happiness, equanimity, resolve, exertion, compulsion, concentration, etc., (5) consciousness (inane), includes the six types of consciousnesses, consciousness of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily sensation, and mental consciousness, all of which arise out of the union between the object and the corresponding organ. The Skandhas are characterized by suffering and impermanence and selflessness, and do not comprise an atman or Self. Back to index
(05) Five Strengths (1) Strong determination, (2) Familiarization, find out who you really are, make the dharma familiar, (3) Seed of virtue, basic goodness, (4) Reproach, see the poisons for what they are – poisons, (5) Aspiration for enlightenment. Back to index
(05) Five Transcendent Practices From Dalai Lama's Transcendent Wisdom – (1) Generosity, (2) Moral discipline, (3) Patience, (4) Enthusiasm and (5) Meditative absorption. Back to index
(05) Five Vehicles The vehicles of the Human, Divine, Sravaka, Pratyekabuddha, and Bodhisattva. Back to index
(06) Six Directions Four compass points plus above and below. In the Avatamsaka Sutra they are expanded into ten directions, dividing the compass into 8. Back to index
(06) Six Dusts (1) Sight, (2) Sound, (3) Smell, (4) Taste, (5) Touch, (6) Idea. Back to index
(06) Six Paramitas Virtues perfected by a Bodhisattva in the course of his development: (1) Charity or giving (dana; three kinds, (i) Giving of wealth which results in obtaining wealth, (ii) Giving of teaching which results in obtaining wisdom intelligence and skill, and (iii) Giving of fearlessness which results in health and long life), (2) Discipline or upholding precepts (sila, see the Five or Ten precepts), (3) Patience (kshanti, three categories, (i) tolerance of physical and verbal abuse, (ii) patience with the variations in the natural elements, (iii) patience with the arduous course of our practice), (4) Exertion or zeal (virya, staying focused on one method), (5) Meditation or contemplation (dhyana, includes the heavenly realms and beyond, includes Namo Amituofo chanting, keeps us away from the dreamlike unattainable phenomena), (6) Wisdom (prajna). Back to index
(06) Six Particular Unspecified Mental States (1) Initial Application, (2) Sustained Application, (3) Decision, liberation from doubt, (4) Envy, (5) Interest, (6) Desire, construed neutrally. Back to index
(06) Six Paths Paths of transmigration within the realm of Birth and Death. (1) Hells, (2) Hungry ghosts, (3) Animality, (4) Humans, (5) Asuras, (6) Celestials. Back to index
(06) Six Principles of Harmony From Master Chin Kung – (1) Share the same viewpoints and goals, (2) Observe the same precepts, (3) Live and practice together harmoniously, (4) Do not quarrel, (5) Experience the inner peace and happiness from practicing together harmoniously, (3) Share benefits harmoniously. Back to index
(06) Six Prominent Bodhisattvas Summarized in Mu Soeng's THE DIAMOND SUTRA: Transforming the Way we Perceive the World, p. 105.
(1) Avalokiteshvara (a.k.a. Padmapani and Kwan Yin), the bodhisattva of compassion (2) Manjushri, the bodhisattva of wisdom, (3) Vajrapani, the desroyer of negative formations, (4) Kshitigarbha, the guardian of purgatories who seen not as a torturer but as the superintendant of a model prison, doing his best to make life tolerable for his charges; he is also a protector of sick children, (5) Mahasthamaprapta, who brings to humans the knowledge necessary for attainment of awakenign, (6) Samantabhadra, protector of all those who teach the Dharma, also the embodiment of the unity of nirvana and samsara.
Back to index
(06) Six Realms Various modes of existence in which rebirth can happen: (1) Hell, (2) Hungry ghosts, (3) Animals, (4) Humanity, (5) Titans, (6) Gods. Back to index
(06) Six Root Afflictions From the Ge-luk-ba order of Tibetan Buddhism. From Jeffrey Hopkins' Meditation on Emptiness. See also the Twenty Secondary Afflictions. (1) Desire, (2) Anger, (3) Pride, (4) Ignorance, (5) Doubt, (6) Afflicted Views (See the Five Afflicted Views). Back to index
(06) Six Sense Objects (1) Form, (2) Sound, (3) Scent, (4) Taste, (5) Texture, (6) Thought. Back to index
(06) Six Sense Organs (1) Eye, (2) Ear, (3) Nose, (4) Tongue, (5) Body, (6) Mind. Back to index
(07) Seven Kinds of Pride From the Ge-luk-ba order of Tibetan Buddhism. From Jeffrey Hopkins' Meditation on Emptiness.

(1) Pride – a puffing up of the mind, thinking one is superior to lower persons.

(2) Excessive Pride – a puffing up of the mind, thinking one is superior to equal persons.

(3) Pride Beyond Pride – a puffing up of the mind, thinking one is superior even to people who are superior to others.

(4) Pride of Thinking I – a puffing up of the mind, observing the aggregates of mind and body and thinking, "I."

(5) Pride of Conceit – a puffing up of the mind, thinking that one has attained what one has not attained, such as siddhis, etc.

(6) Pride of Slight Inferiority – a puffing up of the mind, thinking that one is just a little lower than others who are actually greatly superior.

(7) Wrongful Pride – a puffing up of the mind, thinking that one has attained auspicious qualities when one has actually deviated from the path. Back to index

(07) Seven Precious Jewels Traditional/Representative: (1) Gold/Faith, (2) Silver/ Perseverance, (3) Lapis Lazuli/ Sense of shame, (4) Crystal/ Avoidance of wrongdoing, (5) Agate/ Mindfulness, (6) Red pearl/ Concentration, (7) Carnelian/ Wisdom. Back to index
(07) Seven Things to Remember When Dealing with Friends From the Dharmagupta Vinaya – (1) Give what is hard to give, (2) Do what is hard to do, (3) Be patient when it is hard to be patient, (4) Do not keep secrets, (5) Protect one another, (6) Do not abandon a friend in need, (7) Do not permit an atmosphere of gred or low-mindedness to develop between you. Back to index
(07) Seven Universal Unspecified Mental States

(See also the Six Particular Unspecified Mental States)

(1) Contact, of consciousness with an object; (2) Feeling, the emotional quality of an experience, (3) Perception, recognition of the sensory modality of the sense impression, (4) Volition, an instinctive volitional response, (5) One-pointedness, the necessary limitation of consciousness to a single object, (6) Attention, the counterpart to one-pointedness, takes awareness away from object, where one-pointedness limits awareness to one object, (7) Vitality, the force that binds the other six states. Back to index
(07) Sevenfold Reasoning From Chandrakirti, based on Nagarjuna's Treatise on the Middle Way. (1) There is no other chariot other than its parts. (2) There is no chariot which is the same as its parts. (3) There is no chariot which inherently possesses its parts. (4) There is no chariot which inherently depends on its parts. (5) There is no chariot upon which its parts are inherently dependent. (6) There is no chariot which is the mere collection of its parts. (7) There is no chariot which is the shape of its parts. Back to index
(08) Eight Adversities They prevent the practice of the Dharma: (1) Rebirth in hell, (2) Rebirth in the brute-world, (3) Rebirth in the ghost-world, (4) Rebirth among the long-lived gods, (5) Rebirth in an uncivilized country, (6) Rebirth with deficient faculties, (7) Adherence to false views, (8) Life in a realm wherein there is no Tathagata. Back to index
(08) Eight Afflictions These afflictions lead to many other subsidiary afflictions:
(1) Absence of embarrassment and absence of (2) shamefulness, and the presence of (2) jealousy, (3) stinginess, (4) misdeeds, (5) drowsiness, (6) sleep, (7) agitation.
Back to index
(08) Eight Chief Afflictions These are the sources of demerit, and also states of mind with are neither meritorious or demeritorious:
(1) Lack of faith, (2) Idleness, (3) Carelessness, (4) Indolence, (5) Recklessness, (6) Forgetfulness, (7) Incorrect judgment, (8) Confusion.
Back to index
(08) Eight Consciousnesses "Consciousness" refers to the perception or discernment occurring when our sense organs make contact with sense objects. (1) sight consciousness, (2) hearing consciousness, (3) scent consciousness, (4) taste consciousness, (5) touch consciousness, (6) mind consciousness, (7) Mano consciousness (defiled mind), (8) Alaya consciousness, the storehouse of samskaras, and the consciousness that transmigrates. The first five consciousnesses correspond to the five senses. The sixth is the ordinary mind, and integrates the perceptions of the five senses into coherent images and makes judgments about the external world. The seventh consciousness (afflicted mind) is the active center of reasoning, calculation and construction of individual objects. It is the source of clinging and craving, and thus the origin of the sense of self or ego and the cause of all illusion that arises from assuming the apparent to be real…" (Sung-peng Hsu, quoted in Thich Thien Tam's Horizontal Escape. Back to index
(08) Eight Precepts of Enlightenment From the Enlightenment Sutra:
  1. Impermanence characterizes everything in the universe. There is no control at all over the body and worldly objects. Observing all phenomena from this angle, we shall gradually free ourselves from the suffering of birth and death.

  2. Excessive desire begets suffering. Fewer desires and less craving will make the mind and body more comfortable.

  3. Insatiable ambitions seek only for gain, and increase wrongdoings. Those who practice bodhisattvaship should bear contentment in mind, endure poverty, and look for nothing but wisdom in following the Buddha's doctrine.

  4. Laziness is degrading - one should persevere and be diligent in acquiring wisdom.

  5. Ignorance constitutes the suffering of birth and death. Followers of bodhisattvaship should remember to store up knowledge by learning and listening, in order to prepare their wisdom and eloquence to spread the Buddhist scriptures to all beings, conferring on them the Great Happiness.

  6. The poor often foster hatred, which keeps people on bad terms with each other. Followers of bodhisattvaship should practice charity and treat friend and foe alike, with the same degree of love. There should be no malice at all, and no repugnant feeling towards the wicked.

  7. The five passions (also called the Five Desires, desire for wealth, sex, fame; and overindulgence in food and sleep) lead to sins and woe. Laymen should remember the ways of the bikkhus, and if laymen desire to be bikkhus, they should scrupulously observe the Buddhist scriptures and keep from evil. Thus their perfect life will be known for a long time and far and wide, and they will impart compassion to every suffering creature.

  8. The wheel of birth and death is like a flame burning at home, with innumerable sufferings. First we must make vows to dedicate ourselves to the service of mankind, then to suffer for their sake, and finally do what we can to lead them to nirvana.
    Back to index

(08) Eight Sufferings In all life (1) Birth, (2) Age, (3) Sickness, (4) Death, (5) Parting with what we love, (6) Meeting with what we don't like, (7) Unmet needs, (8) The ills of the Five Skandas. Back to index
(08) Eight Winds Conditions which are a natural part of life (1) Profit and (2) loss, (3) Defamation and (4) fame, (5) Praise and (6) blame, (7) Suffering and (8) joy. Back to index
(08) Eightfold Noble Path (1) Right Knowledge -- Three major and four minor kinds:
  1. General right knowledge: compassion, loving-kindness, and equality, the cause-effect law by which we can determine our own future by our own deeds, and the doctrine of rebirth.
  2. Right knowledge in the Buddhist sense:
    1. The understanding of what merit is and the root of merit; the understanding of demerit and the root of demerit.
    2. The combination of five factors (skandas) of form, feeling, perception, tendencies and consciousness as impermanent, prone to suffering, and lacking a self.
    3. The law of conditioned arising and cessation of all phenomena.
    4. The understanding of suffering and its cause, the cessation of suffering, and the Eightfold Path that leads to the cessation of suffering.

  3. Sublime Right Knowledge, the knowledge or penetration that comes from meditation.

(2) Right thought: giving up all thoughts of greed, hatred, ignorance, for these lead to increasing sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair.

(3) Right speech: Abstaining from lying, stretching the truth, speaking harshly, puffing oneself up with one's talk, putting others down, arrogance, false modesty, etc.

(4) Right action: Abstaining from killing, stealing, misconduct in sexual relations, drinking, and other intoxicating substances.

(5) Right livelihood: Not having the profession of butcher, hunter, fisherman, soldier, executioner, fortuneteller, astrologer. Also, not to sell arms, poison, and intoxicating drinks. In general, we should have no profession that is dishonest or causes suffering to any living being.

(6) Right effort -- four kinds:

  1. Overcoming evil and demeritorious states of mind that have already arisen, the way one would seek air to breathe.
  2. Avoiding the arising of evil and demeritorious states of mind that have not yet arisen, the same way one would strive to an epdemic disease.
  3. Maintaining meritorious states of mind, that have already arisen, like spraying one's fruit trees.
  4. Developing meritorious states of mind that have not yet arisen, like sowing good seeds.

(7) Right mindfulness -- four kinds:

  1. Contemplation of the body as impure.
  2. Contemplation of sensation/perception as suffering-prone.
  3. Contemplation of various states of mind as impermanent.
  4. Contemplation of phenomena as devoid of self.

(8) Right concentration -- The stillness that leads to clear, deep, true vision, and a tranquil repose.
Back to index

(09) Nine Kinds of Belligerence From the Ge-luk-ba order of Tibetan Buddhism. From Jeffrey Hopkins' Meditation on Emptiness.

(1) 'This person has harmed me.'

(2) 'This person is harming me.'

(3) 'This person will harm me.'

(4) 'This person has harmed my friend.'

(5) 'This person is harming my friend'

(6) 'This person will harm my friend.'

(7) 'This person has helped my enemy.'

(8) 'This person is helping my enemy.'

(9) 'This person will help my enemy.' Back to index

(10) Ten Directions (1) North, (2) Northeast, (3) East, (4) Southeast, (5) South, (6) Southwest, (7) West, (8) Northwest, (9) above and (10) below. Back to index
(10) Ten Evil Acts Evil Deeds, Ten Sins, etc. (1) Killing, (2) Stealing, (3) Sexual misconduct, (4) Lying, (5) Slander, (6) Coarse language, (7) Empty chatter, (8) Covetousness, (9) Angry speech, (10) Wrong views. Back to index
(10) Ten Great Vows of Samantabhadra Bodhisattva (1) Pay respect to all Buddhas, (2) Praise the "Thus Come One," (3) Make offerings extensively, (4) Repent of karmic obstacles, (5) Be joyful over others' meritorious deeds, (6) Appeal to the Buddha to turn the Dharma Wheel, (7) Request the Buddha to reside in this world, (8) Constantly be a diligent follower of the Buddha's teaching, (9) accord with all sentient beings, (10) Dedicate all merits. Back to index
(10) Ten Major Precepts (1) No killing, (2) No stealing, (3) No sexual misconduct, (4) No lying, (5) No intoxicating substances, (6) No broadcasting the faults of the assembly, (7) No praising oneself and disparaging others, (8) No stinginess, (9) No anger or resentment, (10) No slandering the Three Jewels. Back to index
(10) Ten Minor Afflictions (1) Anger, (2) Enmity, (3) Vexation, (4) Hypocrisy, (5) Dishonesty, (6) Deceit, (7) Arrogance, (8) Harmfulness, (9) Envy, (10) Selfishness. Back to index
(10) Non-Seeking Practices From the Pure Land treatise Horizontal Escape, pp. 265-266.
  1. We should not wish our bodies always to be free of ailments and diseases, because with no ailments, a body is prone to desire and lust. This leads to ethical transgressions and the breaking of precepts. Turn suffering and disease into good medicine.

  2. We should not wish our lives to be free of all misfortune and adversity, lest we be prone to pride and arrogance. This makes us overbearing towards others. Turn misfortune and calamity into liberation.

  3. We should not wish our mental cultivation be free of all obstacles, because then our clarity and knowledge would be exceptional. This leads to the mistake of thinking we have awakened when we have not. Turn obstacles into freedom and ease.

  4. We should not wish that our cultivation be free of demonic obstacles, because then our vows would not be firm and endearing. This leads to thinking we have attained enlightenment when we have not. Turn demons into Dharma friends.

  5. We should not wish that all our plans and activities meet with easy success. Too much ease in these things makes us inclined to thoughts of contempt and disrespect, leading to pride and conceit. Turn trying events into peace and joy.

  6. We should not wish for gains and advantages in our social relations. This leads us to violate moral principles and see only the mistakes of others - we should look only at our own mistakes. Turn enemies and antagonists into helpful associates.

  7. We should not wish that everyone, at all times, be on good terms and in harmony with us. This leads to pride and conceit and seeing only our own side of every issue. Turn opponents into “fields of flowers.”

  8. We should not wish to be repaid for our good deeds, lest we develop a calculating mind. This makes us greedy for fame and fortune. Turn feelings of ingratitude into worn-out shoes to be discarded.

  9. We should not wish to share in opportunities for profit, lest the mind of delusion arise. This leads us to harm our reputation for the sake of unwholesome gain. Turn frugality into power and wealth by not needing anything.

  10. When we are wronged and subject to injustice, we should not necessarily seek to refute and rebut. Doing so indicates that the notions of self-and-others has not been severed. This leads to more resentment and hatred. Turn wrongs and injustice into conditions for progress along the Way. Back to index
(10) Ten Realms (1) Heavens, (2) Asuras, (3) Humans, (4) Animals, (5) Hungry Ghosts, (6) Hells, (7) Buddhas, (8) Bodhisattvas, (9) Pratyekabuddhas, (10) Sound-hearers. Back to index
(10) Ten Recitations The ten-recitation method, based on the lowest grade of rebirth in the Meditation Sutra. Also mentioned in the vows in the Sutra of Infinite Life. Uttering Amitabha Buddha's name 10 times for each in-breath and ten times for each outbreath. After the recitations, the cultivator should transfer the merits accrued toward rebirth in the Pure Land. Back to index
(10) Ten Virtuous Practices (1) Protect and nurture life, (2) Abstain from stealing, (3) Abstain from sexual misconduct, (4) Speak truthfully, (5) Foster good relationships, (6) Speak gently and use encouraging words, (7) Speak sincerely, (8) Practice generosity, (9) Practice patience and tolerance, (10) Uphold the right view. Back to index
(10) Ten Bodhisattva Grounds The ten stages or grounds or bhumis. From Nagarjuna's Precious Garland of Advice, 440-461, and Mu Soeng's introduction to The Diamond Sutra.

The ground of Buddhahood is different, being in all ways inconceivable, endowed with ten immeasurable powers and limitless good qualities.

(1)       Very Joyful, Pramuditabhumi – the Bodhisattvas are rejoicing from having forsaken the three entwinements (i). Viewing the transitory collection as a real self, (ii) afflicted doubt, (iii) considering bad ethics and codes of discipline as superior. They are also born to the lineage of the Ones Gone Thus. The perfection of giving becomes supreme, they vibrate a hundred worlds and become great lords of Jambudvipa (southernmost of a four-continent world system).

(2)       Stainless, Vimalabhumi – All 10 virtuous actions of body and mind and speech are stainless, and abiding in ethics is accomplished. The perfection of ethics becomes supreme. They are Universal Monarchs helping beings, masters of all four continents and of the seven precious objects (chariots, jewels, consorts, ministers, elephants, horses, generals).

(3)       Luminous, Prabhakaribhumi – The pacifying light of wisdom arises, concentrations and clairvoyances are generated. Desire and hatred are extinguished. They practice the deeds of patience and become a wise monarch of the gods. Mastered the four stages of absorption and the four stages of formlessness and acquired the first five of the six supernatural powers.

(4)       Radiant, Archismatibhumi – The light of true wisdom arises. They cultivate all the harmonies with enlightenment. They become the monarchs of the gods in heaven without combat. They are skilled in quelling the arising of the view that the transitory collection is inherently I and mine. The 37 harmonies with enlightenment are:

Four Establishments through Mindfulness

1)     Mindful establishment on body

2)     Mindful establishment on feeling

3)     Mindful establishment on mind

4)     Mindful establishment on phenomena

Four Establishments through Abandonings

5)     Generating virtuous qualities not yet generated

6)     Increasing virtuous qualities not yet generated

7)     Not generating non-virtuous qualities not yet generated

8)     Thoroughly abandoning non-virtuous qualities already generated

Four Legs of Manifestation

9)     Aspiration

10)   Effort

11)   Contemplation

12)   Analytical meditative stabilization

Five Faculties

13)   Faith

14)   Effort

15)   Mindfulness

16)   Meditative stabilization

17)   Wisdom

Five Powers

18)   Faith

19)   Effort

20)   Mindfulness

21)   Meditative stabilization

22)   Wisdom

Seven Branches of Enlightenment

23)   Correct mindfulness

24)   Correct discrimination of phenomena

25)   Correct effort

26)   Correct joy

27)   Correct pliancy

28)   Correct meditative stabilization

29)   Correct equanimity

Eightfold Path

30)   Correct view

31)   Correct realization

32)   Correct speech

33)   Correct aims of actions

34)   Correct livelihood

35)   Correct exertion

36)   Correct mindfulness

37)   Correct meditative stabilization

(5)       Extremely Difficult to Overcome, Sudurjayabhumi – All evil ones find it difficult to conquer them. They become skilled in knowing the subtle meanings of the noble truths and so forth. They become monarchs of the gods in the Joyous Land. They overcome the foundations of all the externalists' afflictive emotions and views.

(6)       Approaching, Abhimukhibhumi – They approach the good qualities of a Buddha. Through familiarity with calm abiding and special insight they attain cessation and hence are advanced in wisdom. They become monarchs of the gods in the land of Liking Emancipation. Hearers (pratyekabuddhas) cannot surpass them. They pacify those with the pride of superiority. They gain insight into dependent arising and emptiness.

(7)       Gone Afar, Durangamabhumi – The number of good qualities has increased. Moment by moment they enter the equipoise of cessation. They become masters of the gods in the land of Control over Others' Emanations. They become great leaders of teachers who know the direct realization of the four noble truths. They have gained skills in the knowledge of skillful means, which allows them to lead people according the their abilities. Stage of nonretrogression, and can now be a mahasattva, great being, and manifest in any way necessary to help and teach others.

(8)       Immovable, Achalabhumi – The youthful ground, through non-conceptuality they are immovable and the spheres of activity of their body speech and mind are inconceivable. They become a Brahma, master of a thousand worlds. Foe Destroyers, Solitary Realizers, and so forth cannot surpass them in positing the meaning of doctrines. Nothing bothers them because they know when and where they can manifest in the universe at will. They can transfer merit to others and will no longer accrue their own merits. They are now certain to attain Buddhahood.

(9)       Excellent Intelligence, Adhumatibhumi – Like a regent they have attained correct individual realization and therefore have good intelligence. They become a Brahma, master of a million worlds. Foe destroyers and so forth cannot surpass them in the thoughts of sentient beings. The wisdom is complete, and all the supernatural powers are in possession, as well as the teachings leading to awakening. This is the stage of Shakyamuni Buddha in the world.

(10)    Cloud of Doctrine, Dharmameghabhumi – The rain of holy doctrine falls. The Bodhisattva is bestowed empowerment with light rays by the Buddhas. They become master of the gods of Pure Abode, they are supreme great lords, master of the sphere of infinite wisdom. The dharmakaya is fully developed. They sit on a lotus in a heaven called Tushita surrounded by countless bodhisattvas and their Buddhahood is confirmed by all the Buddhas. Maitreya and Manjushri are at this stage. Back to index

(11) Eleven Virtuous Mental Factors From the Ge-luk-ba order of Tibetan Buddhism. (1) Faith, (2) Shame, (3) Embarrassment, (4) Non-attachment, (5) Non-hatred, (6) Non-ignorance, (7) Effort, (8) Pliancy, (9) Conscientiousness, (10) Equanimity, (11) Non-harmfulness. Back to index
(12) Twelve Divisions of the Dharma Twelve kinds of scriptures depending on the style of exposition:
  1. Sutra – Buddha's exposition of the Dharma in prose,
  2. Geya – Verses which repeat the ideas already expressed in prose,
  3. Gatha – Verses containing ideas not expressed in prose,
  4. Nidana – Narratives of the past which explain a person's present state,
  5. Itivrittaka – Narratives of past lives of the Buddha's disciples,
  6. Jataka – Narratives of the past lives of the Buddha,
  7. Abdhuta-dharma – Accounts of miracles performed by the Buddha or a deva,
  8. Avadana – Exposition of the Dharma through allegories,
  9. Upadesa – Discussions of doctrine,
  10. Udana – Exposition of the Dharma by the Buddha without waiting for questions or requests from his disciples,
  11. Vaipulya – Extensive exposition of principles of truth,
  12. Vyakarana – Prophecies by the Buddha regarding his disciples' attainment of Buddhahood. Back to index
(12) Twelve links of conditioned arising (1) Ignorance, (2) Activity, conception, disposition (3) Consciousness, (4) Name and form, (5) Six sense organs, (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind) (6) Contact, (7) Sensation, (8) Thirst, desire, craving, (9) Grasping, clinging, (10) Being, existing, (11) Birth, (12) Old age, death. Back to index
(14) Fourteen Unwholesome Mental States With roots in delusion: (1 – 4) Delusion, Shamelessness, Unscrupulousness/fearlessness, Restlessness. With roots in greed: (5 – 7) Greed, Mistaken belief, Ill-will. With roots in ill-will: (8 – 11) Ill-will, Envy, Avarice, Worry. (12 – 13) Sloth, Torpor. (14) Doubt. Back to index
(20) Twenty Secondary Afflictions From the Ge-luk-ba order of Tibetan Buddhism. From Jeffrey Hopkins' Meditation on Emptiness. See also the Six Root Afflictions.

(1) Belligerence, (2) Resentment, (3) Concealment (hiding faults from a teacher), (4) Spite, (5) Jealousy, (6) Miserliness, (7) Deceit (pretension of having good qualities when one does not), (8) Dissimulation (a wish to hide one's faults from others through the force of a desire for goods and services), (9) Haughtiness, (10) Harmfulness, (11) Non-shame, (12) Non-embarassment, (13) Lethargy (heaviness and unserviceability of body and mind, and involves ignorance), (14) Excitement, (15) Non-faith, (16) Laziness (non-delight in virtue due to attachment to lying down, etc.), (17) Non-conscientiousness, (18) Forgetfulness, (19) Non-introspection, (20) Distraction. Back to index

(20) Twenty Kinds of Difficulty Encountered by People From the Sutra in Forty-Two Sections.

  1. It is difficult to give when one is poor.
  2. It is difficult to study the Way when one has power and wealth.
  3. It is difficult to abandon life and face the certainty of death.
  4. It is difficult to encounter the Buddhist sutras.
  5. It is difficult to be born at the time of a Buddha.
  6. It is difficult to resist lust and desire.
  7. It is difficult to see good things and nto seek them.
  8. It is difficult to be insulted and not become angry.
  9. It is difficult to have power and not abuse it.
  10. It is difficult to come in contact with things and have no attachment to them.
  11. It is difficult to be greatly learned in the Dharma.
  12. It is difficult to get rid of self-satisfaction, pride and conceit.
  13. It is difficult not to slight those who have not yet studied the Dharma.
  14. It is difficult to practice equanimity of mind.
  15. It is difficult not to gossip.
  16. It is difficult to meet a good knowing advisor.
  17. It is difficult to see one's own Nature and study the Way.
  18. It is difficult to save sentient beings with means appropriate to their situation.
  19. It is difficult to see a state and not be moved by it.
  20. It is difficult to have a good understanding of skill-in-means and apply it well.
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(32) Thirty-two marks of perfection Dvatrimshavara-lakshana -- 32 marks of a buddha:

(1) level feet; (2) sign of a 1,000-spoke wheel on the soles of the feet; (3) long, slender fingers; (4) broad heels; (5) curved toes and fingers; (6) soft, smooth hands and feet; (7) arched feet; (8) lower body like an antelope's; (9) arms reaching to the knee; (10) virile member without narrowing the foreskin; (11) powerful body; (12) hairy body; (13) thick, curly body hair; (14) golden-hued body; (15) a body that gives off rays ten feet in every direction; (16) soft skin; (17) rounded hands, shoulders and head; (18) well-formed shoulders; (19) upper body like a lion's; (20) erect body; (21) powerful muscular shoulders; (22) forty teeth; (23) even teeth; (24) white teeth; (25) gums like a lion's; (26) saliva that improves the taste of all foods; (27) broad tongue; (28) voice like Brahma's; (29) clear blue eyes; (30) eyelashes like a bull's; (31) lock of hair between the eyebrows (3rd eye); (32) a cone-shaped elevation on the crown of the head.
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